One Piece isn’t exactly a series devoted to portraying pirates with historical accuracy, but one of the things that is great about it is the way Eiichiro Oda makes casual references to real life pirates with some of the characters. For example:
Bellamy the Hyena from One Piece lost his whole crew during a journey to the island in the sky. Sam Bellamy was a real pirate who drowned in a shipwreck that also took most of his crew.
Jewelry Bonney from One Piece is an infamous pirate, the only woman in the group known as the Eleven Supernovas. When she tries to head for the New World, she is captured by Blackbeard. Anne Bonny was one of the few well documented female pirates of the real world. While she likely never met him in her lifetime, in works of fiction, she is often portrayed as the object of Blackbeard’s affections.
Blackbeard, aka Teach, in One Piece, is a vile man whose Yami-Yami no mi grants him the powers of darkness. Edward Teach, the real life Blackbeard, was such a villain that, rumour has it, he set his own beard on fire and let it smoke to intimidate his foes.
Bartholomew Kuma from One Piece was known as “the Tyrant” - he must have been a strict man, and he was often pictured carrying a bible. Bartholomew Roberts was the real life pirate responsible for developing the pirates’ only “official” code, and was also an extremely religious man for a privateer.
Basil Hawkins from One Piece is a pirate and fortune teller who is known by the epithet “the magician.” Fire is quite a hazard to his straw-related devil fruit powers. And Sir John Hawkins was a superstitious privateer who was known to be afraid of fire.
X Drake from One Piece was originally on the government’s side as a marine, but for reasons yet unknown, he became a pirate. Sir Francis Drake committed some of the most successful piratical raids in history, but he did so under the title of privateer, and was a personal favourite of his queen.
Trafalgar Law is a pirate in One Piece who has the reputation of being a very cruel man (we’ve yet to see how true the rumours are, however…) But Edward Low was a real pirate, who apparently used amputation as a method of torture, and was feared by even his own men.
Finally, Eustass “Captain” Kid is a pirate who hates the government, notably saying that the deeds of the nobles in One Piece make the pirates look “cute.” William Kidd, the Captain Kidd of the real world, was a pirate who thought he had a free pass as a privateer, until the lord he was working with betrayed him, leading him to be hanged as an example.